Comparison of Proving Frameworks

opML vs zkML

ORA leverages opML for Onchain AI Oracle because it’s the most feasible solution on the market for running any-size AI model onchain. The comparison between opML and zkML can be viewed from the following perspectives:

  • Proof system: opML uses fraud proofs, while zkML uses zk proofs.

  • Performance: opML is much more performant, while zkML has long proof generation time and extremely high memory consumption (ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6).

  • Security: opML uses crypto-economic based security, while zkML uses cryptography based security.

  • Finality: We can define the finalized point of zkML and opML as follows:

    • zkML: Zero-knowledge proof of ML inference is generated (and verified).

    • opML: Challenge period of ML inference is passed. With additional mechanisms, faster finality can be achieved in much shorter time than the challenge period.


Opp/AI combines both opML and zkML approaches to achieve scalability and privacy. It preserves privacy while being more efficient than zkML.

Compared to pure zkML, opp/ai has much better performance with the same privacy feature.

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